Stevick, Earl W.; Teaching and Learning Lanugages; Cambridge University
Press; Cambridge 1982
A presentation of why tried and true methodologies work under current
theoretical understandings. Mr. Stevick provides a practical synthesis of
classroom procedure and theoretical justification.
Memory is multidimensional and multi sensual.
Language is not an isolated system in memory. It is linked to the
Language acquisition can be improved by the holistic understanding of
how memory works.
Respects multiple styles of learning
Recognizes the distinction between learning and acquisition.
Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory and Learning are distinct from
Acquisition. In other terms, Short Term Declarative and Long Term
Declarative Memory are associated with Learning; Non- Declarative Memory
is associated with Acquisition.
Creating non-linguistic imagery reinforces learning.
Building Auditory Images: Pronunciation and Grammar
Substitution, Substitution-Correlation, and Transformation Oral Drills
play their role in learning.
Mimicry and Memorization serve an important role in learning but do
not achieve acquisition. Acquisition is a more holistic process than
Memorizing in 3 D: the multiple planes of understanding language
The 74 Step Exercise: Small increases in grammatical structure can
dramatically increase difficulty for students. The exercise presents
increments in word classes and constructions to the students. It also
give teachers and students experience in the inherent difficulties and
limitations of languages. To sound NATURAL despite these limitations is
a powerful tool for teachers. It achieves learning and acquisition
Be aware of the mechanics of language structures (competence). Be aware
of their implications in communicative and psycholinguistic practice
(performance). To fail to do so will put the teacher at a disadvantage.
Stevick, E ; Memory, meaning and method; Newbury House; Rowley, Mass;
Stevick, E; Teachers of English as an Alien Language: In Fanselow and
Crimes, On TESOL '76 pp 225- 226; Washington D.C: Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages.
Stevick, E; Teaching Languages: A way and ways; Newbury House; Rowley,