Essay Question Information –
Reviewing the study questions below will prepare you for the ESSAY portions of the final exam.
When answering each essay question, you should draw on and reference the assigned readings and seminar information relevant to the topic. I will be looking for specific content in your answers, not counting the number of words you write!
Information related to each topic included on the final exam, Globalization and Economic Development, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, and Population, Environment and Climate Change can be reviewed by clicking on each of these topics.
Ethical theories and principles
be considered and mentioned where appropriate in answering all
Specific questions related to the ethical principles and concepts utilized in your "ethics case analysis" may also be included on the examination..
The 3 essay questions will be based on the study questions below.
20% of the final exam score will be based on the two "short" essays and 40% on the one "critical" essay.
The other 40% of the final exam will be made up of multiple choice and short answer items as was done for the mid-term exam.
The actual wording of the final exam essay questions will be different than what appears below although the focus will be the same.
letters SE following a question indicates that it is a "short essay" item
while the letters CE mean the item is a "critical essay" one.
The primary difference between these two types of questions is the breadth and depth of the answer required.
A CE item might be converted into a SE one by selecting a portion of the CE item listed below to include on the final exam.
Unit Four - Computers, Surveillance Technologies, and Artificial Intelligence
1. Discuss the MAJOR way a robot with "AI" would be different than a typical robot produced today. SE
2. Although much personal information has been in the public domain for many years, why do many fear that computers pose the most serious threat to our privacy and security today? SE
3. What is seen by many as being the next MAJOR leap in the evolution of computers and what issues, including ethical ones, might arise if this breakthrough occurs? CE
4. What are TWO KEY benefits robots offer today and TWO KEY reasons they might also pose a threat to society? SE
5. Discuss how a typical robot in use today "knows" how to behave and what to do and the major way "Watson" differs. SE
6. Against what types of robots are Asimov's "Laws of Robotics" designed to protect us and why do you either feel they are adequate or not to do that? SE
Unit Five - Globalization and Economic Development
1. What TWO MAJOR conditions exist in many LDCs which give those countries what some call an "unfair advantage" over workers in MDCs when competing for jobs? SE
2. Briefly describe the concept of "out-sourcing" and discuss ONE MAJOR positive and ONE MAJOR negative impact of it. SE
3. Discuss TWO PRIMARY reasons why Henry Ford might have decided to pay his workers $5 a day when other automobile companies were paying considerably less than that amount. SE
4. What MAJOR CATEGORY of U.S. jobs were initially "outsourced" and how has that changed today? What is one KEY way used by LDCs to lure companies to relocate? CE
5. Name TWO major characteristics of globalization and explain ONE MAJOR WAY why globalization is beneficial and ONE MAJOR WAY globalization is harmful to you. CE
6. Discuss the TWO MAJOR reasons seen as accounting for the loss of jobs in the U.S. today, aside from reduced consumer demand. CE
Unit Six - Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
1. What is the MAJOR ethical issue related to the debate over embryonic stem cell research often used to oppose this technology? Discuss the MAJOR ethical argument put forward by those who support this type of research? CE
2. Describe the TWO PRIMARY ways in which organisms change in nature and TWO MAJOR reasons genetic engineering has become very popular today. CE
3. What is ONE possible benefit and ONE negative aspect of the "eugenics"? Discuss the ONE ethical principle which would justify such programs and the other ethical principle which finds them morally unacceptable. How does this issue relate to the PGD process. CE
4. Explain the MAJOR limitation of using the "One shouldn't play God" statement to justify why a particular technology should or should not be permitted. SE
5. What aspect of the ART process in vitro fertilization is related to stem cell research, what is the PRIMARY related ethical issue and how is it addressed in some countries? SE
6. Discuss a PRIMARY ISSUE related to technologies associated with "end-of-life-care" and a key ethical concern raised. SE
Unit Seven - Population, Energy, and the Climate Change
1. Briefly explain the central theme of the "Tragedy of the Commons" and the PRIMARY CHANGE in a number of LDCs in relation to the IPAT equation, which many believe poses the greatest threat to the environment. CE
2. Discuss ONE way which has been effectively used by governments to encourage greater use of alternate energy and the PRIMARY reason doing this is often required. SE
3. Discuss the TWO PRIMARY influences on the FR in different types of countries and why that is changing in many places today. SE
4. What are TWO primary facts that many feel require a shift from traditional fuels to alternate sources of energy in today’s world? CE
5. Increased energy consumption in the world is a major concern. Discuss one major way being considered to deal with problems related to the distribution of electricity. CE
6. Discuss TWO key factors which must be considered when calculating the "true" cost of any fuel. SE